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Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Martyrs 24a: Auto da fé at Valladolid; caught as Lutherans

   This continues from Part 23d (Table of Contents in Part 1a and Part 1b) publishing the book of Hermann Fick on the martyrs of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. — Part 24a presents the essay on the well known Auto da fé in Valladolid with its multiple martyrs.
      Why do I persist in presenting this Lutheran account of the martyrs when there is so much information already on the Internet?  It is because there is so much misinformation related to these martyrs, such as this example from an 1851 book by an expulsed member of "Primitive Methodist" sect, who uses portions of John Foxe's Acts and Monuments:
"To return to Spain. A remarkable oneness of purpose actuated the leading evangelists of that country. They were not at first so much indebted to Germany as might be supposed. The religious wars and persecutions of their own country had provoked reflection. Not only the Koran, but the Old Testament, had been a household book through long ages of trial.  Prevalent idolatry and fiend-like persecution had closed the heart of the afflicted Jew against the evidences of Christianity."
This assessment of Church History deflects the "oneness of purpose" among the followers of Luther in Spain away from the Reformation, away from the Reformer, Martin Luther.  It shows a willful ignorance of the singular power of Luther's Reformation.  Even the Romanist Spanish historian Llorente admits (pg 196 ff.) that these Valladolid martyrs were Lutherans.  And so I continue this Lutheran martyrology.

Some highlighting added; hyperlinks added for reference.
by C.J. Hermann Fick
(tr. by BackToLuther)
"And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they?  And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb."
Rev, 7:13-14
At this time, since many people of high and low estates were caught as Lutherans, the inquisitors decided to show their power and strength even in a public spectacle before the whole world, and to hold an Auto da fé, which means in German: to hold to an act of faith.  This was their name for their solemn executions of Christian believers, as the wretched Papist tyrants were under the delusion that they were performing a God pleasing work, as the Lord Christ declared before, "Yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service." John 16:2.   Except it is a far more correct naming of such executions as an act of faith because the Christians steadfastly confessed their faith in front of everyone by God's grace unto death.
It was in 1559, when the inquisitors held captive a large number, including many distinguished persons, as Lutherans, bound at Valladolid, where [page 187] the King of Spain usually kept his court encampment.  There they setup in the market before the city three large, far-reaching show stages or scaffolding, with chairs, benches and a gallery, whereupon the royal personages should sit together with other lords and courtiers to view this bloody, or rather fiery tragedy.  Not far from the city were 14 high-stakes or poles erected with some steps where l4 Lutherans should be burned.
Now when the 21st day of May had dawned, early in the morning at 6 o’clock, the Princess Juana,
Auto da fé in Valladolid
sister of
King Philip and regent of his kingdom, and his son, the young Prince Don Carlos, together with many other princes, lords and courtiers, assembled with great pomp on the gallery and settled there.  However, all around the stages, the whole marketplace, and all houses and roofs were filled with an immense number of spectators from all ranks  who stood looking out of the windows and from the houses to hear the verdicts of the Inquisition and to look at the court.  When the royal and princely persons were seated and waited a long time, the Inquisition judges emerged in their splendor, led by the Archbishop of Seville, as the chief of the synagogue of the inquisitors of the Inquisition Council along with other bishops of the country and the king's counselors, and mounted the other stage.
Now then the princes, and the other spiritual judges and councillors took their places by their station, surrounded by a large number of archers, halberdiers and armed soldiers, while four heralds of the coat of arms were doing their service and the imperial marshal carried the bare sword and the countless masses expectantly watched: there were led up as a spectacle and triumph the poor servants and witnesses
Sanbenito depiction
       by Goya
of the Lord Jesus, about thirty in number, caught  and bound, with burning candles in their hands and all clothed as dishonest people with yellow shameful gowns or
Sanbenitos that were decorated with red crosses.  Along with them was also brought to the stage the coffin and picture of a noble woman who had died long before, and during her life should have been a Lutheran, in order to receive her judgment.  Those [page 188] which should be condemned to death had paper hats which the Spaniards call Coaca on their heads, and a black linen-covered crucifix was carried ahead of them as a sign of mourning.  Then they were put in an order, one after the other, according to how they were considered guilty.  The noblest of all was the Augustinian monk, Doctor Cazalla, Canon of Salamanca, a very famous theologian and excellent man, who had been for some years a court preacher of Emperor Charles V in Upper and Lower Germany. Therefore, he had been placed ahead of the others, to a higher bench.  He along with his whole family was imprisoned soon after Charles's death, and in 1559 thirteen people among this family were burned.
Then came a Dominican monk, named Melchior Cano, who gave a sermon lasting about an hour.  After the sermon, the General Procurator went by his show stage with the archbishop of Seville to the Royal Gallery, which were connected to each other so that one could go from one to the other, and solemnly administered to the royal and princely people the following oaths, where each one of them had to lay two fingers on a Crucifix painted in a missal: "Your Majesties are sworn to favor and promote the Holy Inquisition, and not only to not prevent it in any way, but also will support with all force to kill all those who separate themselves from the Roman Church and join the sect of the Lutheran heretics without respect of persons, from whatever standing, dignity or condition they may nevertheless be from."  Also the second oath was "Your Majesties will swear that they will force all of their subjects to submit to the Roman Church and to keep their commandments in honor, and to help them resist those who still cherish the heresy of the Lutherans or any take any part of it."  All royal and princely persons swore obediently to this oath, after which the Archbishop uplifted his hand and gave them his blessing, saying: "God bless your Highnesses, and grant them long life!"  The same swore also the remaining states and lords who were present in large numbers, each according to his rank. [page 189]
After completion of this wicked ceremony, the condemnation of the poor prisoners was read in the order listed publicly and in a loud voice, whose whole crime was that they loved the pure evangelical Lutheran doctrine agreeing with the Gospel of the Lord Jesus, and rejected the superstitious human institutions of the Roman papacy. The Procurator Solicitor or great-collector of the Pope began with the already mentioned Dr. Augustino Cazalla, [or Cacalla in Foxe] whom he called from his seat that he should come near and listen to his judgment, which read thus: Because one would certainly know that Cazalla was a teacher, preacher and as it were the flag leader of the Lutheran sect in Spain, so one should therefore first solemnly degrade him, and then immediately burn him, but confiscate all his goods for the betterment of the Inquisition. [See here for painting of this event, text in Spanish]
The second one called by the Solicitor was Francisco de Bivero [or Francis de Bivero from Foxe], Cazalla's brother and minister to Valladolid, who was also sentenced to the fire. But because he was very popular with the people and a most eloquent, zealous man who had confessed the truth freely inside and outside the prison, his mouth was so connected that he could not speak a word. They were worried that he would open his mouth too much, and thus attract the people and show his innocence in the light of day.
The third was a sister of the two mentioned martyrs, Mrs. Blanca de Bivero [or Dame Blanche de Bivero in Foxe], and she was condemned in the same way to death by fire.
Fourthly was Juan de Bivero, a brother of the preceding who was cried out as a heretic and condemned to eternal prison, and that he should wear a Sanbenito or yellow gown of shame throughout his life as a sign that he was disreputable and would be deprived of honor.  Fifth, was a sister of the same, Constantia de Bivero, [or Dame Constance de Bivero in Foxe], widow of Fernando Ortis, who had been for a while at Valladolid, condemned to be burned with her brothers.
= = = = = = = = = =   concluded in Part 24b   = = = = = = = = = = =

The Spanish Inquisition is rather well known in history.  Yet it is distorted in many ways to diminish its infamy, whether by the Roman Church, the Reformed, or secular historians... though there are surprisingly some who are not completely blind to how it affected later history.  —  There is currently a blog from Valladolid (in Spanish) that presents additional information on this Auto da fé with more pictures.

It is noteworthy that the Auto da fé is also covered in the Jewish Encyclopedia, as they attempt to honor the Jews who were also put to death by the Roman Antichrist.  But the only reason for mentioning this is that it also relates to a portion of Fick's history of the Lutheran martyrs at Valladolid... coming in the next Part 24b.  Hmmm, Lutherans and... Jews?

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